Thursday, December 22, 2011

Monday, December 19, 2011

Level II certification courses at 'Trinity Institute of NDT' starts on 20th January 2012 in India

Nondestructive testing Level II certification courses at 'Trinity Institute of NDT' commences on 20th January 2012 at Bangalore in India. The training center organizes all the 5 ndt courses continuously for the convenience of training participants. Since inception in the year 2002, 'Trinity NDT' organized more than sixty such successful NDT courses across India in Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi-NCR, Visakhapatnam, Panaji-Goa, Pune, Nagpur, Chennai, Coimbatore, Trichy in Tamilnadu, Palakkad, Kochi-Kerala, Bhubaneswar-Odisha, Kolkata, Ahmedabad-Gujarat, Mangalore, Belgaum, Hindupur-Andhra Pradesh and Port Harcourt-Nigeria.

All the certification courses contains in depth theory, practical and examinations at the end of each course.  The institute prepared syllabus to provide more emphasis on practical NDT and the trainers are with more than fifteen years of practical materials testing and nondestructive testing related experience and materials/metallurgical engineering background knowledge. The training center in India is equipped with modern class rooms with audio visual effects, workshops with latest ndt equipments, pleasant accommodation for outstation participants.   

To know more about the detailed schedule, obtaining brochures email: or call helpline at +91 9844129439/9900929439. Visit: for latest brochure downloads.

Sunday, December 18, 2011

Trinity NDT - Brief basics of Visual and Optical Testing(VT)

Visual Testing(VT) basic requirements

The tool that is used to perform VT is the human eye.  The following are the requirements for the performance of VT:
Visual   Acuity   -   Personnel   who   perform   VT   must   pass   an   annual eye examination  in accordance  with  industry  standards. The  eye  examination checks   for   conditions   such   as   visual   acuity,   color   blindness,   and   depth perception.
Distance  -  The  examiner’s  eye  should  be  located  within  24  inches  and  at  an angle  of  not less  than  30  degrees  to  the  surface  of  the  weld  that  is  being examined  to  conduct  a direct  visual  examination. Mirrors  can  be  used  to improve the angle of vision.
Access - If the area to be examined is not directly accessible, an examination aid can be used.  Examination aids are covered later in this Module.
Lighting - A flashlight or other additional lighting should be used to sufficiently illuminate the area that is to be examined.   A minimum of 35 foot candles of light   should   be   available   for   normal   visual   weld   examinations. When performing  VT  for  small  indications,  a  minimum  of  50  foot  candles  of  light should  be  available. If  required  by  procedure,  a  light  meter  can  be  used  to determine the exact amount of illumination that is available.

Examination Aids

Examination  aids  sometimes  are  used  to  facilitate  visual  examinations. The  following  are examples of commonly used visual examination aids:
1. Mirrors
2. Portable Lighting
3. Flashlights
4. Light Meters
5. Straight Edges and Rulers
6. Magnifying Lenses
7. Boroscopes
8. Microscopes
9. Video Cameras
10. Weld Gages
When  the  use  of  visual testing/examination  aids  (such  as  boroscopes)  are  necessary  to  perform  remote examinations, the  image  resolution  must  be  at  least  equal  to  the  image resolution  that  is attainable by direct visual examination.
Several types of weld inspection gages are available to simplify the measurements of complex weld  configurations  when  conducting  VTs.
The  following  are some of the gauges that are generally used:
Cambridge Gage - This gage can measure undercut, weld reinforcement, bevel angle, root opening, fillet weld size, and joint mismatch.
GAL “Hi-Lo” Gage - This gage can measure joint mismatch, root opening, and weld reinforcement.
AWS Type Gage - This gage also can measure various sizes of standard fillet welds.

Common Applications
The following are common applications for visual weld examinations
  • To determine the size and length of fillet welds on structural members
  • To inspect the weld joint fit-up including bevel angle, root opening, land, and cleanliness of piping welds.
  • To inspect in-process welds and completed welds prior to additional NDT.
  • To inspect the proper fit-up of socket weld fittings on small diameter pipe.
The   following   are   the   common   discontinuities   that   can   be   detected   during    visual examination:
  • Cracks
  • Slag
  •  Porosity
  •  Undercut
  •  Cold Lap
  •  Arc Strikes
  • Many more surface discontinuties 
Purpose of Visual Inspection method The purpose of a visual weld examination (VT) is to detect visible surface discontinuities on a weldment.   VT is the most frequently used method of examination, and welders and welding inspectors continuously use VT during welding operations to make better quality welds.   VT often will identify problems during welding that can be repaired “in process” to prevent the discovery of a discontinuity by a subsequent nondestructive test.
Advantages of Visual Inspection method VT is the quickest and most cost-effective method of NDT for use in the identification of a surface  discontinuity  on  a  weld. Because  the  VT  method  of  NDT  requires  the  fewest technical and interpretive skills, VT also is the simplest NDT method to learn.  The use of VT throughout  the  welding  process  significantly  improves  the  success  of  subsequent  NDT  and reduces the cost of repairs.

To know more about Nondestructive testing visit:

List of Important American Codes, Standards, Specifications related to NDT

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
ANSI is the primary organization that is responsible for coordinating the activities of all other standard  writing  organizations.   ANSI  primarily  reviews  and  certifies  that  the  standards  are correct.   ANSI has established specific guidelines for the formation of other standard bodies such as ASME and AWS.  Recently, several ANSI piping standards (B31.1, B31.3, B31.4 and B31.8) have been reclassified as ASME documents.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME Codes are among the most widely used in the petrochemical industry and they govern items  such  as  pressure  vessels,  boilers,  and  piping.
          The  following  is  a  list  of  the  ASME Codes
1. ASME Code B31.1
2. ASME Code B31.3
3. ASME Code B31.4
4.  ASME Code B31.8
5.  ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I
6.  ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV
7.  ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V
8.  ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII

ASME  Code  B31.1- Power  Piping
Pertains  to  the  design,  materials,  fabrication,  test,  and inspection of power and auxiliary piping.   Typical systems include steam, water,  gas,  oil,  and  air  services  that  support  electric  power  generation. 
ASME Code B31.3 - Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
Pertains to the design, materials, fabrication, test, and inspection of chemical piping systems.   Typical applications include on-plot stripping steam, crude oil, acid, caustic, sour water, and cooling systems that are used to refine petroleum products.  
ASME  Code  B31.4  -  Liquid  Transportation  Systems  for  Hydrocarbons,  Liquid  Petroleum Gas,  Anhydrous  Ammonia,  and  Alcohols
Pertains  to  the  design,  construction,  inspection, testing,  operation,  and  maintenance  of  liquid  petroleum  and  anhydrous  ammonia  piping systems. Typical   applications   include   off-shore   and   off-plot   cross-country   pipelines, terminals, and tank farms. 
ASME  Code  B31.8  -  Gas  Transmission  and  Distribution  Piping  Systems
Pertains  to  the design,  fabrication,  installation,  inspection,  testing,  and  operation  of  gas  transmission  and distribution systems (including gas pipelines), gas compressor stations, and gas metering and regulating  stations.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I - Power Boilers
Pertains to the design, material  selection,  fabrication,  inspection,  testing,  and  certification  of  power  boilers  that exceed 15 psi for steam service and that exceed 160 psi and/or 250oF for hot water service.
ASME  Boiler  and  Pressure  Vessel  Code,  Section  IV  -  Heating  Boilers
Pertains  to  the design, material selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of heating boilers that do not exceed 15 psi for steam service or that do not exceed 160 psi and 250oF for hot water  service. 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V - Nondestructive Examination
Provides requirements  and  methods  for  NDT  that  include  radiographic,  ultrasonic,  liquid  penetrant, magnetic  particle,  eddy  current,  visual  examination,  leak  testing,  and  acoustic  emission.
ASME  Boiler  and  Pressure  Vessel  Code,  Section  VIII  -  Pressure  Vessels
Pertains  to  the design, material selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels. The  three  classes  of  pressure  vessels  that  are  covered  by  this  code  are  welded,  forged,  and brazed. Typical  applications  include  steam  generators,  heat  exchangers,  hydrocrackers, fractionation  towers,  reformer  reactors,  and  other  components  that  are  designed  to  contain fluids  or  vapors  at  high  temperatures  and  pressures.

American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)
ASNT is an organization that is dedicated to NDT.  ASNT organizes and distributes technical information that is specific to NDT.  
ASNT SNT-TC-1A - Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing:  Provides requirements for the qualification and certification of NDT personnel.

American Welding Society (AWS)

The AWS is an organization that provides standards for the welded fabrication of structures and bridges with structural steel and sheet metal.  
AWS   D1.1   -   Structural   Welding   Code: Provides   acceptance   standards   and   welding requirements   for   buildings,   bridges,   and   tubular   structures.  The   requirements   for   the qualification  of  weld  procedures  and  welders  also  are  included  in  this  Code.

American Petroleum Institute (API)
1.  API 510
2.  API 620
3.  API 650
4.  API RP-2A

API  510  -  Pressure  Vessel  Inspection  Code
Provides  requirements  for  the  maintenance inspection, repair, alteration, and relating procedures for pressure vessels that are used by the petroleum and chemical process industries.  
API 620 - Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
Pertains to  the  design  and  construction  of  large,  low  pressure,  above  ground  storage  tanks.   Typical applications include the storage of gases or vapors that results from refining operations. 
API  650  -  Welded  Steel  Tanks  for  Oil  Storage
Provides  material,  design,  fabrication,  and testing  requirements  for  above  ground  atmospheric  tanks.   Typical  applications  include  the storage of crude and other liquid petroleum products.  
API  RP-2A - Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Off- Shore Platforms:Provides a guide for the design and construction of drilling platforms.  

Visit the following links to know more about international standards


All the above are registered trade/service marks of the respective institute/society. Consult the concerned Society/Institute stated above for buying the above codes, standards, specifications related to nondestructive testing-NDT